, Cities increasingly participate in world political activities independently of their enclosing nation-states. ", Kaplan (2004), pp. The total number of people inhabiting a specific area.  Place brands (which include place satisfaction and place loyalty) have great economic value (comparable to the value of commodity brands) because of their influence on the decision-making process of people thinking about doing business in—"purchasing" (the brand of)—a city. Jenné-Jeno, located in present-day Mali and dating to the third century BC, lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite social class—but nevertheless had specialized production and relations with a hinterland. Who Is The “Jack” In The Term “Jack-o’-lantern,” Anyway? , One of the main methods of improving the urban ecology is including in the cities more natural areas: Parks, Gardens, Lawns, and Trees. The word "city" and the related "civilization" come from the Latin root civitas, originally meaning citizenship or community member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs, meaning "city" in a more physical sense.  Legal conflicts and issues arise more frequently in cities than elsewhere due to the bare fact of their greater density. London became the first truly global city by placing itself within the new global economy. , Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on wage labour, their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment. Big cities were created as power images of a competitive society, conscious of its achievement potential. The set of individuals, items, or data from which a statistical sample is taken.  Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure construction and maintenance. The film Lang made turned out to be, privately owned spaces open to the public, List of largest cities throughout history, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities, "Population by region - Urban population by city size - OECD Data", Toward a New Conceptualization of Settlements for Demography, "How NC Municipalities Work – North Carolina League of Municipalities", The 1925 Master Plan for Tel-Aviv by Patrick Geddes, Locations, Population and Density per Sq. (2008), p. 678. The biggest investors and real estate developers act as the city's de facto urban planners. (2015).  They include (known by their Arab names) El Lahun, a workers' town associated with the pyramid of Senusret II, and the religious city Amarna built by Akhenaten and abandoned. Yi Jianping, "'Civilization' and 'State': An Etymological Perspective"; Carter (1995), pp. The diminution of population in Ireland revealed by the 1901 Census amounted to 245,000 persons. Kimberly S Schimmel, "Assessing the sociology of sport: On sport and the city"; Stephen V. Ward, "Promoting the Olympic City"; in John R. Gold & Margaret M. Gold, eds., Ashworth (1991). agriculture or fishing). Michael Samers, "Immigration and the Global City Hypothesis: Towards an Alternative Research Agenda"; Jane Willis, Kavita Datta, Yara Evans, Joanna Herbert, Jon May, & Cathy McIlwane. (2015), 5–11. "Indeed, the design of the buildings often revolves around the consumable fantasy experience, seen most markedly in the likes of Universal CityWalk, Disneyland and Las Vegas.  The global urban proletariat of today, however, generally lacks the status as factory workers which in the nineteenth century provided access to the means of production. Kaplan et al. ", Herbert S. Levinson, Samuel Zimmerman, Jennifer Clinger, & C. Scott Rutherford, ". Kath Wellman & Frederik Pretorius, "Urban Infrastructure: Productivity, Project Evaluation, and Finance"; in Wellman & Spiller (2012), pp.  The ancient Greek city of Priene exemplifies a grid plan with specialized districts used across the Hellenistic Mediterranean. The benefits applied to men and women of all ages, as well as across different ethnicities, socioeconomic status, and even those with long-term illnesses and disabilities. This form could evolve from successive growth over a long time, with concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city boundaries.  The Phoenician trading empire, flourishing around the turn of the first millennium BC, encompassed numerous cities extending from Tyre, Cydon, and Byblos to Carthage and Cádiz. Mostly it refers to the smallest administrative unit of a country having a predominately urban population. The imperial planners and architects knew the answer, which is as valid today as it was 2,000 years ago. 5–6. Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape.