[2], The word curia is thought to derive from Old Latin coviria, meaning "a gathering of men" (co-, "together" =vir, "man"). Traditionally ascribed to the kings, each of the three tribes established by Romulus, the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres, was divided into ten curiae. This page was last edited on 13 October 2020, at 11:06. However, over time the name became applied to the senate house, which in its various incarnations housed meetings of the Roman senate from the time of the kings until the beginning of the seventh century AD. By extension, the word curia came to mean not just a gathering, but also the place where an assembly would gather, such as a meeting house.[4]. The two goddesses symbolized the wisdom of the senators and the power of the empire. [4][5], Each curia had a distinct name, said to have been derived from the names of some of the Sabine women abducted by the Romans in the time of Romulus. [8], Each curia had its own sacra, in which its members, known as curiales, worshipped the gods of the state and other deities specific to the curia, with their own rites and ceremonies. The emperor for his part was so attentive and showed so much solicitude (concern would be too strong a word) that he warned my freedman, who was standing behind me, several times that I should think of my voice and my lungs.note[Pliny the Younger, Letters 2.11.15.]. A view of the Roman Forum seen from a window of the Palazzo Senatorio: at the centre the church of St. Martina and Luca; at the lower right corner the Arch of Septimius Severus, 13 November 2013 View of the Curia Julia and the church of St. Martina and Luca. Caesar did so to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and the Roman Forum. He was assisted by another priest, known as the flamen curialis. THE ROMAN CURIA: In exercising supreme, full, and immediate power in the universal Church, the Roman pontiff makes use of the departments of the Roman Curia which, therefore, perform their duties in his name and with his authority for the good of the churches and in the service of the sacred pastors. They were the units that made up the primitive assembly of the people, the Comitia Curiata, and were the basis of early Roman military organization. Obviously, this did not go down well. There are three broad steps that could have fitted five rows of chairs or a total of about 300 senators. [5], The curia was presided over by a curio (plural, curiones), who was always at least 50 years old, and was elected for life. To take the floor was to take a risk. In the Western Empire, one hundred seems to have been a common number, but in the East five hundred was customary, on the model of the Athenian Boule. Other Roman … In the past, the Curia Hostilia and Comitium "were oriented by the cardinal points of the compass, which may have marked them out as specially augurated space and at any rate set them off obliquely from the Forum rectangle that formed over the centuries". Still, the two buildings had similarities. C. Panella. Caligula, accordingly, when he saw and heard all this, was melted, believing that he had really overwhelmed Domitius by the eloquence of his speech. In addition, the Senate functioned as a court for governors who were accused of maladministration. The Roman Curia. Sulla had doubled the senate's membership from 300 to 600, necessitating a larger building, which retained the original orientation of the Curia Hostilia, but extended further south into the comitium. The oldest assembly hall of the Senate, the Curia Hostilia, stood at the place where the church of Santi Luca e Martina now stands, or rather, ten meters below it. In imperial times, local magistrates were often elected by municipal senates, which also came to be known as curiae. The building itself was covered with white marble and painted stucco, while a winged Victoria appeared to alight on the crest of the rooftop. Scienze dell'antichità. On July 10, 1923, the Italian government acquired the Curia Julia and the adjacent convent of the Church of S. Adriano from the Collegio di Spagna for approximately £16,000. [4] The curio undertook the religious affairs of the curia. In 1923, the church and an adjacent convent were bought by the Italian government. [4], In AD 94, the Curia Julia was rebuilt along Caesar's original plan by the emperor Domitian, who also restored the former orientation of the Curia Hostilia. A few of the curiae continued to meet at the Curiae Veteres due to specific religious obligations. [4], Since the Roman Kingdom, the meeting-house of the Roman senate was known as the curia. Lesser curiae existed for other purposes. [8], The other main feature of the Curia's interior, the floor, is in contrast to the building's colorless exterior. Pliny the Younger describes the performance of a lawyer in a blackmail case: Being a master in provoking tears, he set his rhetorical sails and made them billow out with a veritable storm of compassion. Both the Curia Hostilia's Tabula Valeria and the Curia Julia's Altar of Victory in the Curia Julia, attest to the enduring preeminence of Rome's military despite the reduced role of the Senate. [12] As the Republic continued, the curiae grew too large to meet conveniently at the Curiae Veteres, and a new meeting place, the Curiae Novae, was constructed. In the assembly hall there were three hundred seats, enough for half of the senators. In medieval times, a king's council was often referred to as a curia.

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