Today we are able to complete the task of our forefathers and to establish forever that which Michael the Great was only able to establish for a moment, namely, a Romanian union on both slopes of the Carpathians. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary. At the outbreak of hostilities, the Austro-Hungarian Empire invoked a casus foederis on Romania and Italy linked to the secret treaty of alliance since 1883. These decisions and their consequences has been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since. However, under the circumstances in which the Russian High Command decided unilaterally to stall any offensive as a result of the grave situation created on the front in Galicia and Bukovina following the failure of the Kerensky Offensive and the counter-attack of the Central Powers, the Romanian General Headquarters saw itself compelled to discontinue the offensive throughout the entire territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Black Sea. Although most Transylvanian Romanians were loyal to the Empire, over time, reactionary sentiments emerged, especially after Romania joined the war. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and he signed (with foreboding) a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. The plan envisaged the checking of the advance of the German Ninth Army from the north and north-west, as well as the encirclement and annihilation of the German-Bulgarian-Turkish units deployed south-east of Bucharest. The three great battles, decisive for the Romanian nation's destiny, delivered at Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz, represented a turning point in the war on the Eastern front. Moldavia, on the other hand, suffered great territorial losses. Judging by the military situation, it was to be expected that Rumania had only to advance where she wished to decide the world war in favor of those Powers which had been hurling themselves at us in vain for years. But when there he quickly formed the view that an unprepared and ill-armed Romania facing a war on three fronts against Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria would be a liability not an asset to the allies. It was signed at Buftea, near Bucharest, on 7 May 1918. These factors meant that the Romanian forces became too strained to put up effective resistance against the enemy advance. The Battle of Mărășești had three distinct stages. In such a situation Romania finds itself today… and if not today, then tomorrow we will reap the fruits of these sacrifices and of these assertions of rights… remember: Tudor Vladimirescu was crushed and the rulers of the day slaughtered him. And it was enough, not only for him to remain a legendary and glorious hero throughout the ages, but also for us today to base the claims of this nation on his deeds.”. The treaty had two parts: a political treaty (seven articles) and a military convention (seventeen articles). 2, pp. It is the day of the union of all branches of our nation. In 1775, the Habsburgs invaded Bukovina and annexed it, and in 1812, the Russian Empire took control of Bessarabia. They demanded an agreement not to make a separate peace with the Central Powers, equal status at the future peace conference, Russian military assistance against Bulgaria, an Allied offensive in the direction of Bulgaria, and the regular shipment of Allied war supplies. The offensive pushed the Romanian defenders back through the mountains and into the plains by 26 November. 834-835, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. It had the most significant oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. [27][28] The Ottoman declaration took place either on 29 August,[26] 30 August[27] or 1 September. [81] Despite this the Germans represented only 22% of the Central Power's forces that took part in the campaign compared to the Austro-Hungarian 46% and combined Bulgarian and Ottoman 32%.[82]. 181 (in Bulgarian, Министерство на войната (1943), pp. In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attaché on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war. Primary Documents - Treaty of Bucharest, 7 May 1918 Background to the Treaty Romania, having started the war as a neutral, entered on the side of the Allies in August 1916, led by Ion Bratianu, the Allies having promised support for the fulfilment of Romanian national unity. [2] Thompson became head of the British Military Mission. It is necessary to forsake neutrality, with the ideal of national unity in mind, for who knows if over the centuries we will find another opportunity as favourable as the one of today.” Brătianu was supported by the majority of those present in the Council, who mostly were liberal and conservative-democrats. Required fields are marked *. The Romanian Army occupied large parts of Hungary until 28 March 1920, when eventually retreated back to the demarcation lines. In our moral energy and our valour lie the means of giving him back his birthright of a great and free Rumania from the Tisza to the Black Sea, and to prosper in peace in accordance with our customs and our hopes and dreams. The Romanian Fourth Army, in the north of the country, retreated without much pressure from the Austro-Hungarian troops, so that by 25 October, the Romanian army was back to its initial positions. There, a conspicuous figure was cut by Ecaterina Teodoroiu, who was to enter the consciousness of all Romanians as the "Heroine of the Jiu". The Council began with the King outlining the situation: “I have summoned the country’s greatest men here, not to ask for advice, but to ask for their support. [64], In January 1917, the Romanian river gunboat Smârdan was sunk by German shore artillery, three sailors were killed. [63], The re-organization also involved the other troops (combat engineers, air force, navy) and services, which underwent notable improvements. [7], The military convention stated that Romania was to attack Austria-Hungary from the south while Russia committed itself to start an offensive on the Austrian front to support the Romanian advance into Transylvania. Romania–Russia relations are the foreign relations between Romania and Russia. It was signed on 9 December 1917 in Focșani in Romania. Romania remained neutral when the war started, arguing that Austria-Hungary itself had started the war and, consequently, Romania was under no formal obligation to join it. On that day, Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary, and launched three armies of 440,000 men the same night across the passes of the Southern and Eastern Carpathians. Robescu, president of the Senate), former Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Theodor Rosetti, Petre P. Carp, Titu Maiorescu), heads of the opposition parties (Nicolae Filipescu, Take Ionescu, Alexandru Marghiloman), former chairmen of the Legislative Bodies (C. Olănescu and C. Cantacuzino-Pașcanu) were present. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and Thomson signed a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. While retreating, the Romanians burnt stores of grain and destroyed oil wells to prevent them from being used by the Germans. The response of the Romanian army in fact created the strongest blow to the Central Powers that was dealt in Eastern Europe in 1917.[74]. The Romanian forces could not withstand the new German attack which started on 1 November 1916. The exit of Russia from the war in March 1918 with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk left Romania alone in Eastern Europe, and a peace treaty between Romania and the Central Powers (Treaty of Bucharest (1918)) was negotiated in May 1918. A similar gathering was held by the minority Hungarians in Cluj (Kolozsvár), on 22 December, where they reaffirmed their allegiance to Hungary. The Allies supported the maintenance of the Romanian front by continuing to deliver and supplement previously placed orders. [64], Considerable progress was achieved with the technical-material equipment of the army by means of its provisioning with armament, ammunition and other combat resources from inside the country, but even more importantly from abroad. The re-organization pursued the reduction of the effectives of the "Operations Army" to parameters that suited the country's resources for waging a long campaign. 2, p. 834, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. The German high command was seriously worried about the prospect of Romania entering the war, Paul von Hindenburg writing: It is certain that so relatively small a state as Rumania had never before been given a role so important, and, indeed, so decisive for the history of the world at so favorable a moment. Faced with the enemy threat, the troops of the Romanian First Army, under command of General Ion Dragalina, offered strong resistance. It was carried on under their leadership and control in the free national territory, in spite of Russian attempts to shift the Romanian army beyond the Dniester, inside Ukraine.

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